This article is part of an ongoing series about my exploration of the Padrino web framework. If you want to read more about it please check out padrinobook.com. You sniff around in the sources of the book under GitHub.
Working effectively with ctags has been a topic I avoided for a long time because I was too lazy to invest the time to learn about it.
I was working on my application and needed to constantly consult Padrino’s API docs in the browser. It would have been more effective if I could do the searching directly in Padrino’s code on GitHub. Even better would be if I didn’t have to leave the terminal and could stay in the flow of coding. It’s possible with
What is ctags
ctags is a tool which make it easy for you to shift rapidly through code.
It does this by indexing classes, methods, variables and other things. All this information is stored in a
tags file - one line in this file contains one tag.
ctags makes it easy to browse a large code base like Padrino, where you might not know the project layout and class/method definitions. Being able to jump forward and backward between variables, classes, modules, and methods is essential in getting to know a code base.
Depending on your operation system, you can install it easily using the package manager:
# For example, in Debian or Ubuntu: $ sudo apt-get install exuberant-ctags
Why I’m installing
exuberant-ctags instead of
ctags? Ctags was originally written by Ken Arnold (the author of the “Rogue video game”) and was first introduced in BSD Unix. Exuberant ctags is a variant of
ctags and was distributed with Vim 6.0. The main benefit of exuberant ctags is that it support over 40 languages and has regular expression support which make it easier to create your own custom language parser for creating the
tags file. The
tags contains the collected information about the things you want to know.
Generating ctags for the Padrino’s code base
Just clone Padrino and run the following command at the root of the project:
$ git clone https://github.com/padrino/padrino-framework $ cd padrino-framework $ ctags -R .
The command will run recursively through the directory and will tag all sources and files it can find. During running the
ctags -R . command I got the following error:
$ ctags -R --exclude="*.js" .
If you are done with the command you have a
tags file created in the current directory - there is no output if everything went well. Let’s open the generated
tags file and try to understand the basic nature of the file:
!_TAG_FILE_FORMAT 2 /extended format; --format=1 will not append ;" to lines/ !_TAG_FILE_SORTED 1 /0=unsorted, 1=sorted, 2=foldcase/ !_TAG_PROGRAM_AUTHOR Darren Hiebert /firstname.lastname@example.org/ !_TAG_PROGRAM_NAME Exuberant Ctags // !_TAG_PROGRAM_URL http://ctags.sourceforge.net /official site/ !_TAG_PROGRAM_VERSION 5.9~svn20110310 // << padrino-core/lib/padrino-core/logger.rb /^ def <<(message = nil)$/;" f == padrino-core/lib/padrino-core/mounter.rb /^ def ==(other)$/;" f class:Padrino.Mounter AbstractFormBuilder padrino-helpers/lib/padrino-helpers/form_builder/abstract_form_builder.rb /^ class AbstractFormBuilder # @private$/;" c class:Padrino.Helpers.FormBuilder AbstractHandler padrino-helpers/lib/padrino-helpers/output_helpers/abstract_handler.rb /^ class AbstractHandler$/;" c class:Padrino.Helpers.OutputHelpers AccessControl padrino-admin/lib/padrino-admin/access_control.rb /^ module AccessControl$/;" m class:Padrino.Admin AccessControlError padrino-admin/lib/padrino-admin/access_control.rb /^ class AccessControlError < StandardError # @private$/;" c class:Padrino.Admin Account padrino-admin/test/fixtures/data_mapper.rb /^class Account$/;" c Actions padrino-admin/lib/padrino-admin/generators/actions.rb /^ module Actions$/;" m class:Padrino.Generators.Admin ...
The header of each tag file gives you basic information about the creation of the file:
!_TAG_FILE_FORMAT 2 /extended format; --format=1 will not append ;" to lines/ !_TAG_FILE_SORTED 1 /0=unsorted, 1=sorted, 2=foldcase/ !_TAG_PROGRAM_AUTHOR Darren Hiebert /email@example.com/ !_TAG_PROGRAM_NAME Exuberant Ctags // !_TAG_PROGRAM_URL http://ctags.sourceforge.net /official site/ !_TAG_PROGRAM_VERSION 5.9~svn20110310 //
As you can see, the tags are sorted, folded, and you can see the version of ctags in which they were created. If you take a look close in the example above, you can see detect a tag name schema: Let’s consider our first tag:
<< padrino-core/lib/padrino-core/logger.rb /^ def <<(message = nil)$/;" f
First of all you have the tagname
<<, then a tab as separator (it isn’t visible in the code examples above), then tagfile
padrino-core/lib/padrino-core/logger.rb where the tag can be found, followed by a tab, and finally the tagaddress the exact location of the tag inside the tagfile. The tagaddress is a regular expression - the special characters in a search pattern are
^ (begin-of-line) and
$ (indicates the end of the line). Finally a term marked with
;" which indicates if the tag is either a class (
c), module (
m), or function (
f). The term may differ for which language constructs you are going to create your tags.
Jumping into our first tag
Let’s open the
padrino-core/lib/padrino-core.rb file and place your cursor on
server on line 13:
require 'sinatra/base' require 'padrino-core/version' require 'padrino-core/support_lite' require 'padrino-core/application' require 'padrino-core/caller' require 'padrino-core/command' require 'padrino-core/loader' require 'padrino-core/logger' require 'padrino-core/mounter' require 'padrino-core/reloader' require 'padrino-core/router' require 'padrino-core/server' require 'padrino-core/tasks' require 'padrino-core/module' # The Padrino environment (falls back to the rack env or finally develop) PADRINO_ENV = ENV["PADRINO_ENV"] ||= ENV["RACK_ENV"] ||= "development" unless defined?(PADRINO_ENV) # The Padrino project root path (falls back to the first caller) PADRINO_ROOT = ENV["PADRINO_ROOT"] ||= File.dirname(Padrino.first_caller) unless defined?(PADRINO_ROOT) module Padrino ... end
<C-]>- you’ll directly to the
Server class in the
padrino-core/lib/padrino-core/server.rb file. Awesome,
that is just what you know now what you want to know and you can jump back to your previous position with
You can also jump to the tag you want the commandline mode in Vim and use the :tag
command. Type in the name of the class or method you want to jump to. For example, if you type in
:tag Padrino you will jump to a tag. But you already have a suspicion that
Padrino exists in more than one
file. You may think this is a mistake but ctags keeps up a list of all the tags you have explored so far.
If you searched after
:tag Padrino again you can message line beyond in your command window:
tag 1 of 81 or more.
There are 81 browsable matchings tags available. Per default Vim will take the first matching tag if your search for the
first time in your vim session after
:tag Padrino. Use
:tselect followed by a number to jump to the tag you want:
# pri kind tag file > 1 F C m Padrino padrino-admin/lib/padrino-admin.rb module Padrino 2 F m Padrino padrino-admin/lib/padrino-admin/access_control.rb module Padrino 3 F m Padrino padrino-admin/lib/padrino-admin/generators/actions.rb module Padrino 4 F m Padrino padrino-admin/lib/padrino-admin/generators/admin_app.rb module Padrino 5 F m Padrino padrino-admin/lib/padrino-admin/generators/admin_page.rb ...
So you can chose what you want to have. There a bunch of more commands you can use to navigate multiple tags
:tnext (or :tn): goes to the next tag in the
:tprev (or :tp): goes to the previous tag in the
:tfirst (or :tf): goes to the first tag in the
:tlast (or :tl): goes to the last tag in the
Before going to add the tags for the Padrino project as well as any other sources you are using on your project, we need to understand how we can get a big tag file of all our installed gems and after that limit our scope to these parts we only need.
Generating Ctag for all installed gems
Let’s say you are using rbenv to manage your ruby versions and you want to get a global tag file of all your installed gems. Please run the following command:
ctags -R -f gems.tag * ~/.rbenv/versions/<your-ruby-version>/lib
I have 200 installed gems on my system (use
gem list | wc -l) and it took around 7 seconds to generate a tag file with over 200.000 lines. The chances are high that you have errors in your
tags file occur and I really don’t want to load such a big tag file into my vim session. Please note, that the generated tag file
gems.tag instead of
Generating Ctags project specific ones gems
If you think about a ruby project, it is very likely that you will have
Gemfile with all the specified extensions you
need for your project. My friend Andrew Radev has created a small ruby snippet that uses Bundler API for retrieving the used Gemfile in your project and builds a tag file. Instead of using the script you can also
perform the following one-liner on the route of your application:
ctags -R -f gems.tags `bundle show --paths`
Let’s say you have a Padrino project (like my Job Vacancy) with the following
source 'https://rubygems.org' # Server requirements gem 'thin', '1.5.1' # Project requirements gem 'rake', '10.0.4' gem 'uglifier', '2.1.1' gem 'yui-compressor', '0.9.6' # Component requirements gem 'erubis', '~> 2.7.0' gem 'activerecord', '~> 3.2.9', :require => 'active_record' gem 'sqlite3', '~> 1.3.6' # Test requirements group :test do gem 'rspec' , '2.13.0' gem 'factory_girl', '4.2.0' gem 'rack-test', '0.6.2', :require => 'rack/test' end gem 'guard-rspec' gem 'libnotify' # Security gem 'bcrypt-ruby', '3.0.1', :require => 'bcrypt' # Padrino Stable Gem gem 'wirble', '0.1.3' gem 'pry', '0.9.12' gem 'tilt', '1.3.7' # Padrino edge gem 'padrino', :git => "git://github.com/padrino/padrino-framework.git"
bundle show --paths will print the absolute path of the used Gems in the following form:
/home/helex/.rbenv/versions/2.0.0-p247/lib/ruby/gems/2.0.0/gems/open4-1.3.0 /home/helex/.rbenv/versions/2.0.0-p247/lib/ruby/gems/2.0.0/bundler/gems/padrino-framework-0c1317b0c897/padrino /home/helex/.rbenv/versions/2.0.0-p247/lib/ruby/gems/2.0.0/bundler/gems/padrino-framework-0c1317b0c897/padrino-admin /home/helex/.rbenv/versions/2.0.0-p247/lib/ruby/gems/2.0.0/bundler/gems/padrino-framework-0c1317b0c897/padrino-cache /home/helex/.rbenv/versions/2.0.0-p247/lib/ruby/gems/2.0.0/bundler/gems/padrino-framework-0c1317b0c897/padrino-core /home/helex/.rbenv/versions/2.0.0-p247/lib/ruby/gems/2.0.0/bundler/gems/padrino-framework-0c1317b0c897/padrino-gen /home/helex/.rbenv/versions/2.0.0-p247/lib/ruby/gems/2.0.0/bundler/gems/padrino-framework-0c1317b0c897/padrino-helpers /home/helex/.rbenv/versions/2.0.0-p247/lib/ruby/gems/2.0.0/bundler/gems/padrino-framework-0c1317b0c897/padrino-mailer /home/helex/.rbenv/versions/2.0.0-p247/lib/ruby/gems/2.0.0/bundler/gems/padrino-sprockets-8f4f6150b2d9 /home/helex/.rbenv/versions/2.0.0-p247/lib/ruby/gems/2.0.0/gems/polyglot-0.3.3 /home/helex/.rbenv/versions/2.0.0-p247/lib/ruby/gems/2.0.0/gems/pry-0.9.12 /home/helex/.rbenv/versions/2.0.0-p247/lib/ruby/gems/2.0.0/gems/rack-1.5.2
When you start vim in the root of your project, it will only load the
tags file but not the
gems.tags file. Just
open the commandline in vim and type in
If you find yourself doing it over and over again for different project, you have to setup the following setting in your
Vim will search for the file named
tags, starting with the directory of the current file. Since padrino is seperated into different parts you want to jump to the parent directory to find the tag files so you have to enable uppward search with the
; symbol at the end of the search term:
and then recursively to the directory one level above, till it either locates the
tags file or reaches the
root directory. It will do exactly the same for the
Autogenerate tags with Autotags.vim
During the coding you are going to change the name of the method or class and have to generate the tags by hand.
Do you really want to leave the terminal and generate the tags on your own? Tada, there is Autotags.vim. It deletes all tags that are no longer present and calls
ctags -a to append the new tags to your existing tag file. To try it out, just create a new directory with a the following class definition inside the file:
class Ctags end
Now create the tags with
ctags -R . search after the tag
:tag Ctags, after that change the class name
VimCtags. If this doesn’t work for you, it means that you don’t have python support enabled for
your vim version. You can check it with
vim --version | grep python - a
+python means that you have it.
I have written a blog post about how to install vim with python support for the case you have problems with this.
Fuzzy like tag search with Ctrlp plugin
As we have learned before it is possible that we partially know the name of the class or method name we want to use. This
is wherre you have to use ctrlp.vim plugin. Ones installed, it gives you the
:CtrlPTag tag command which make it possible to do a fuzzy like tag search.
If you find yourself using this command very often, you have to add the following mapping into your
nnoremap <leader>. :CtrlPTag<cr>
if the Ctrlp doesn’t provide you enough hits, please use